Alternative Vote and AV+

Like First Past the Post, the Alternative Vote system is based on single-member constituencies; but instead of voting for a single candidate with an ‘X’, voters rank candidates in order of preference, 1, 2, 3 …etc. If no candidate has more than 50 per cent of the votes, the candidate with fewest votes is eliminated and their votes are redistributed among the other candidates according to voters’ second preferences. The process continues until one candidate achieves a majority (50 per cent of the vote plus 1).

This system is used in Australia in elections for the Lower House, and for the selection of the leader of the Labour Party. AV was the alternative to PR offered in the 2011 AV referendum on voting systems. 

While an AV system removes the need for tactical voting, there are many other problems - it is not a proportional system and could in fact lead to results that are less proportional than First Past the Post.

Another similar system is the Alternative Vote Plus system (AV+) This system was devised by the Jenkins Commission (a commission set up by the Labour Government in 1997 to report on voting systems). It was the Jenkins Commission's recommended choice for Parliamentary elections, but it has never been used anywhere in the world.

AV+ combines elements of the Alternative Vote (AV) and the Additional Member System (AMS); Alternative Vote (AV) would be used instead of FPTP in the constituency contests, and the party lists would be ‘semi-open’, giving voters additional choice. The Jenkins report recommended that 80-85% of parliamentary seats should be elected by AV, with the remainder elected from party lists. The system has been criticised on the grounds that this would not provide a sufficient degree of proportionality.